add subtitles

You can hardcode subtitles by providing a subtitles files and running the following command

ffmpeg -i input.mp4 -vf out.mp4

add watermark in any position

The base command for adding watermark looks like this

ffmpeg -i input.mp4 -i watermark.png -filter_complex "POSITION_HERE" out.mp4

You can replace POSITION_HERE with any position you need from the following

Top Right overlay=main_w-overlay_w-10:10

Top Left overlay=10:10

Bottom Right overlay=main_w-overlay_w-10:main_h-overlay_h-10

Bottom Left overlay=10:main_h-overlay_h-10

Center overlay=x=(main_w-overlay_w)/2:y=(main_h-overlay_h)/2

extract audio

If you need to extract audio of a video with re-encoding the whole thing then you can run following command

ffmpeg -i input.mp4 -vn -acodec copy out.mp3

extract video waveform

Following command can be used to extract video waveform

ffmpeg -i input.mp4 -filter_complex "compand,showwavespic=s=640x120" -frames:v 1 out.png

flip a video

Horizontally ffmpeg -i input.mp4 -vf 'hflip' out.mp4

Vertically ffmpeg -i input.mp4 -vf 'vflip' out.mp4

generate thumbnails

If you are running a video sharing website or a similar service, you might want to extract thumbnails from video. This is helpful to show what video represents. You can run following command for this.

ffmpeg -i input.mp4 -ss 00:00:10 -vframes 12 thumb.png

audio volume

Reduce volume by half ffmpeg -i input.wav -filter:a "volume=0.5" output.wav

Increase volume to 150% ffmpeg -i input.wav -filter:a "volume=1.5" output.wav

You can also replace 0.5 with dB

video speed

ffmpeg -i input -filter:v "setpts=0.5*PTS" output

You can adjust speed by changing 0.5

video greyscale

You can make an entire video or a part of it greyscale.

full video greyscale ffmpeg -i input.mp4 -vf "hue=s=0" out.mp4

part of video greyscale ffmpeg -i input.mp4 -vf "hue=s=0:enable=\'between(t,3,5)\" out.mp4

mute video

You can remove audio from video with this command

ffmpeg -i input.mp4 -c copy -an out.mp4

reverse video

only reverse video ffmpeg -i input.mp4 -vf 'reverse' out.mp4

reverse audio and video ffmpeg -i input.mp4 -vf 'reverse' -af 'areverse' out.mp4

rotate video by x degrees

Following command can be used to rotate videos

ffmpeg -i input.mp4 -c copy -metadata:s:v:0 rotate=360 out.mp4

Here you can replace 360with any values e.g 180

show two videos side by side

If you want to display two videos side by side like mostly done on news channels, it can be done like this

ffmpeg -i left.mp4 -i right.mp4 -filter_complex hstack output.mp4

split video

ffmpeg -i input.mp4 -ss 0 -t 300 -c copy out.mp4

Here 0 is start time in seconds and 300 is end time. This command extracts first 5 minutes of video. You can replace it with any time you need.